Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Research
Researchers from the Brain and Mind Research Institute at the University of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia, evaluated the effectiveness of internet-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (iCBT) on depressive symptom severity and adherence to medical advice (including lifestyle interventions) in adults with mild to moderate depression and high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
This was a randomized, double-blind, 12 week attention-controlled trial comparing an iCBT program (E-couch) with an internet-delivered attention control health information package (HealthWatch, n = 282).
The primary outcome measured was depression symptom level on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) (trial registration: ACTRN12610000085077).
Out of 562 subjects, there were 487 completers (88%) who lasted to the final assessment.
Researchers from the Institute of Psychiatry at Kings College, London, UK, conducted a meta-analysis of Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CCBT) to evaluate its short- and long-term effectiveness for treating depression.
Five databases were used (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CiNii). Investigators included all randomized, controlled trials with proper concealment and blinding of outcome assessment, for the clinical effectiveness of CCBT in adults (aged 18 and over) with depression.
Using Cohen's method, the standard mean difference (SMD) for the overall pooled effects across the included studies was estimated with a random effect model. The main outcome measure and the relative risk of dropout were included in the meta-analysis.
Researchers from the Department of Psychology at the University of Vermont in Burlington looked at the recurrence of SAD (seasonal affective disorder or depression) in the fall/winter, one year after receiving cognitive behavioral treatment
The investigators had previously developed a group cognitive-behavioral therapy approach (CBT) specifically targeted for SAD and tested its effectiveness in 2 pilot studies that compared outcomes with light therapy.
This study examines impact during the subsequent winter season (approximately 1 year after acute treatment), following participants randomized to CBT, light therapy, and a combination of both treatments. (N=69).
Researchers from Maastricht University, The Netherlands, compared the effects of CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) with IPT (Interpersonal Psychotherapy – a form of therapy that focuses on relationships) for treating panic disorder with agoraphobia.
Ninety-one adult patients with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder with agoraphobia were randomized to either a CBT condition or IPT. The primary outcome measured was panic attack frequency, along with a behavioral test.
Secondary outcomes were panic and agoraphobia severity, panic-related thoughts, interpersonal functioning and general psychopathology. Measures were taken at 0, 3 and 4 months (baseline, end of treatment and follow-up).
Belgian researchers from the University Psychiatric Center, KULeuven Campus in Kortenberg investigated the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED), on the short and longer term.
Investigators used a prospective study without a control group, consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments, up to 5 years after the start of the CBT treatment).
A total of 56 patients with obesity and BED (mean age = 39.7 ± 10-9 years; body mass index [BMI] = 38.5 ± 8.3 kg/m (2)) participated in the study.
BMI, number of binges per week, general psychological well-being, mood, attitude toward one's body, and loss of control over the eating behavior were evaluated by means of mixed models.
Evaluators from the Minneapolis VA Health Care System assessed the impact of a course of prolonged exposure or cognitive processing therapy on mental health and medical service utilization and health care service costs.
Data on VA health service utilization and health care costs were obtained from national VA databases for 70 veterans who completed prolonged exposure or cognitive processing therapy at the VA medical center. Utilization of services and cost data were examined for the year before and after treatment.
Researchers from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden evaluated the long-term effects of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder. Several trials had demonstrated its effectiveness in the short term, but long term impact was unclear.
This was a 5-year follow-up study of 80 people with SAD who had undergone Internet-based CBT. The assessment comprised a diagnostic interview and self-report questionnaires.
The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR). Additional measures of social anxiety were the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS).
Researchers from the School of Social and Community Medicine at the University of Bristol in the UK evaluated the effectiveness of CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy for patients with treatment-resistant depression, as compared to usual care.
This two parallel-group, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial recruited 469 patients with treatment resistant depression, between the ages of 18-75 years, from 73 primary care practices. (The criteria being that they were on antidepressants for at least ≥6 weeks, scored ≥14 on the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] and scored -10 on depression on the ICD – International Classification of Diseases.)
Participants were randomized, with a computer generated code to one of two groups: usual care or CBT in addition to usual care. They were followed for 12 months. Analyses were by intention to treat. The primary outcome was response, defined as at least 50% reduction in depressive symptoms (BDI score) at 6 months compared with baseline.
Researchers from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver BC looked at the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for adults with ADHD, while controlling for medication use.
Previous studies had not controlled for meds status and included either medicated participants or mixed samples of medicated and unmedicated subjects. So the objective of this study was to examine whether the use of medication actually improves the outcome of CBT, which is known to be helpful.
The investigators used a secondary analysis comparing 23 participants randomized to CBT and Dextroamphetamine vs. 25 participants randomized to CBT and placebo. Both patients and investigators were blind to treatment assignment. Two co-primary outcomes were used: ADHD symptoms on the ADHD-RS-Inv completed by the investigator; and improvement in functioning as reported by the patient on the Sheehan Disability Scale.
Researchers from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa evaluated a 10-week psychosocial treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) & concomitant anxiety disorder.
Using a non-concurrent multiple baseline design, the authors treated 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, combined type, and at least 1 of 3 major anxiety disorders (separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia).
The integrated treatment protocol involved parent management training for ADHD and family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety.