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  1. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and sleep patterns of abused women in shelters.

    Investigators from the University of Kansas explored the effect of a music therapy procedure (music-listening paired with progressive muscle relaxation) on the reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep patterns in abused women staying in shelters.

    Twenty-eight women residing in 2 domestic violence shelters in a Midwestern city met with the researcher on 5 consecutive days for half-hour sessions. A pretest-posttest design with control and experimental groups was used. Dependent variables included: stait anxiety measured by the STAI (Spielberger et al., 1983) before and after each music stimulus, sleep quality as measured by the PSQI (Buysse et al., 1989) on the first and last sessions, and levels of fatigue as measured by the Fatigue Scale (Lee, 1992) at waking time. xiety and improving sleep patterns in abused women staying in shelters

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  2. Active music therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Researchers from the Parkinson''s Disease and Movement Disorders Centre at the University of Pavia in Italy explored the efficacy of active music therapy (MT) on improving motor and emotional functions in patients with PD. Music is believed to act as a specific stimulus through unique sensory pathways, different from movement and practice alone.

    This prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded study lasted 3 months and consisted of weekly sessions of music therapy (MT) and physical therapy (PT, consisting of. Thirty-two patients with PD, all stable responders to levodopa, in Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 or 3, were randomly assigned to two groups, MT or PT, of 16 patients each.

    The severity of PD symptoms was assessed with the Unified Parkinson''s Disease Rating Scale; emotional functions with the Happiness Measure; and quality of life using the Parkinson''s Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire. MT sessions consisted of choral singing, voice exercise, rhythmic and free body movements, and active music involving collective invention. The PT group used passive stretching exercises, specific motor tasks, and strategies to improve balance and gait.

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  3. How does music affect the human body? Examples of the use of music in clinical medicine.

    The good news: A new survey of the research on music and healing was recently published by Myskja and Lindbaek at the University of Oslo. The bad news: it’s in Norwegian. But the English abstract is available in PubMed.

    Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2000 Apr 10;120(10):1186-90 draws tentative conclusions about music’s efficacy for treating anxiety and depression, and improving function in schizophrenia and autism; its utility for pain, reducing the need for medication aqnd helping during uncomfortable diagnostic procedures; its usefulness as a support tool during pregnancy and gestation, in internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics and other related fields; with geriatric patients, alleviating symptoms in stroke rehabilitation, Parkinson''s disease, Alzheimer''s disease and other forms of dementia; and its supportive role in palliative medicine and terminal care.

    The article concludes that music as a therapeutic agent, and music with guided imagery, is well tolerated, inexpensive, and delivers good compliance with few side effects.

    Citation: Myskja A, Lindbaek M. How does music affect the human body? Examples of the use of music in clinical medicine. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Apr 10(10):1182-5, 1186-90.
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  4. Effects of guided imagery and music (GIM) therapy on mood and cortisol in healthy adults.

    In a 1997 pilot study by McKinney, Antoni, Kumar, Tims and McCabe, 28 randomly selected adults were studied to see if the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) had an effect on mood and cortisol levels.

    Subjects were given the POMS test (Profile in Mood States) and donated 15 cc’s of blood before and after a 13-week intervention period, and again at a 6-week follow up.

    Subjects reported significant decreases in depression, fatigue and total mood disturbance, and had significant (and proportional) decreases in cortisol levels.

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  5. Effects of music therapy on anxiety in ventilator-dependent patients.

    A research team in Hong Kong tested the effectiveness of music therapy on twenty ventilator-dependent patients, measuring blood pressure, respiratory rate and the Chinese version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety instrument. Patients were randomly assigned to either 30 minutes of uninterrupted rest and then 30 minutes of music therapy, or the music therapy first, followed by the rest period. Patients had a choice of Chinese or Western music. Measures were taken at 5-minute intervals during the music intervention. The study showed that music therapy was more effective at decreasing anxiety than the rest interval (p < .01). Blood pressure and respiration did not show differences.

    Citation: Wong HL, Lopez-Nahas V, Molassiotis A. Effects of Music Therapy on Anxiety in Ventilator-Dependent Patients. Heart Lung. 2001 Sept-Oct; 30 (5): pp. 376-87.

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  6. The effects of music intervention on anxiety in the patient waiting for cardiac catheterization.

    W J Hamel explored the effects of music therapy on the anxiety levels, heart rate and blood pressure of patients waiting for their scheduled cardiac catheterization. 101 (63 men and 38 women) patients were randomly assigned to listen to 20 minutes of pre-selected music or to a standard care control group. Measurements were taken during the waiting period and just prior to departure for the lab. The intervention group had a significant reduction in anxiety (p = 0.003) and when compared to the controls (p = 0.004). Where the heart rate and systolic blood pressure dropped in the music therapy group, it increased in the control group. This held up whether the patient was male or female, but the men as a group had higher diastolic scores than the women, and the women had higher anxiety scores than the men.

    Citation: Hamel, WJ, The Effects of Music Intervention on Anxiety in the Patient Waiting for Cardiac Catheterization, Intensive Critical Care Nursing, 2001 Oct; 17 (5): pp. 279-85.

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  7. Effect of music on anxiety of women awaiting breast biopsy.

    Twenty patients awaiting breast biopsy at a Kentucky Correctional Facility were randomly assigned to either 20 minutes of music therapy in the pre-op holding area or standard care. Their blood pressure, heart rate, respiration and anxiety levels were measured before and after the intervention. This pilot study showed that the anxiety and respiratory rates of the patients in the music condition were significantly lower than the controls.

    Citation: Haun M, Mainous RO, Looney SW. Effect of Music on Anxiety of Women Awaiting Breast Biopsy. Behavioral Medicine, 2001. Fall; (3): pp. 127-132.

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  8. The effect of music-based imagery and musical alternate engagement on the burn debridement process.

    The effect of music-based imagery and musical alternate engagement on the burn debridement process.
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  9. Effects of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology: a meta-analysis.

    Norwegian researchers from Sogn og Fjordane University looked at eleven studies on the impact of music therapy on children and adolescents with various forms of psychopathology and mental health problems. There was special interest in how the type of pathology, the child’s age and the kind of music therapy approach influenced the outcome.

    There were a total of 188 subjects in the collection of eleven relevant studies found. Effect sizes from these studies were combined, with weighting for sample size, and their distribution was examined.
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  10. Music, imagery, touch, and prayer as adjuncts to interventional cardiac care: the Monitoring and Act

    Well, the data is finally in from the long-awaited MANTRA prayer study at Duke University’s Clinical Research Institute. Cardiologist and principal investigator Mitch Krucoff reported disappointing results from his randomized, controlled, multi-centered pilot study that compared intercessory prayer with a combination of music, imagery and touch (MIT) therapies, and standard care. The earlier study that inspired this one had suggested that prayer created more positive outcomes in heart surgery patients; and certainly Henry Bennett’s study with imagery and Elvira Lang’s with hypnosis showed significant results on surgical outcomes. But this study showed no differences between prayer, MIT and standard care.

    The study randomly assigned 748 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or elective catheterization in nine centers around the U.S. to receive off-site prayer by established congregations of various religions or no off-site prayer (double-blinded) and MIT therapy (the imagery was Diane Tusek’s) or none (unmasked).
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