Potential mediators of post-traumatic stress disorder in child witnesses to domestic violence. When the data were further examined to see if there were any mediating factors or personality traits that influenced the incidence of PTSD ­ variables such as age, gender, perception of threat, locus of control, self-blame, active versus palliative coping style, maternal emotional health, in addition to aspects of the violence witnessed (intensity, frequency, age of child when first witnessing violence, and time since the last violent episode), none were found to contribute significantly to the severity of PTSD. Rather, it was the witness status itself that was made the difference. (This was a small sample, however - these results need to be replicated in larger studies.)

Citation: Kilpatrick KL, Williams LM, Potential mediators of post-traumatic stress disorder in child witnesses to domestic violence. Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect 1998 Apr;22(4):319-30.